. . . . .
Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (top panel), blood pressure
(middle panel) and ascending aortic flow (bottom panel) waveforms. Pressure waveforms
in the ascending aorta (first left), descending thoracic aorta (second left), the abdominal
aorta (second right) and the iliac artery (first right) are shown.
The more distal the pressure pulse away from the heart, the larger is
its amplitude. This is attributed to the larger amplitudes of peripheral
wave reflections. Such reflections have been suggested as a closed-end
type, with the principal sites of reflections in the arterioles.
and geometric changes along a vessel also give rise to reflections, but are
of smaller magnitudes. Reflections, in general, have opposite effects on
pressure and flow.
influences the pulse waveforms. These may be tapering or vascular
branching. The many aspects of vascular branching is the subject of the
The third influential factor is elastic nonuniformity.
wall becomes progressively stiffer toward the periphery owing to