heart during systole into the arterial system distends the large arteries,
primarily the aorta.
During diastole, the elastic recoil of these same
arteries propels blood to perfuse the smaller peripheral resistance vessels.
This initiated the earlier conceptual understanding that the distensibility
large arteries are
important in allowing the transformation of
intermittent outflow of the heart to steady outflow throughout the
peripheral vessels. In other words, the large overall "compliance" of the
large arteries protects the stiff peripheral vessels of organ vascular beds
from the large swing of blood pressure due to pulsations. This view is
still held by many until this day. The significance of arterial pulsations
remains a topic of debate.
The windkessel model is now credited to Frank (1 899) whose original
interest was in obtaining stroke volume from measured aortic pressure
pulse contour. Methods to derive flow from pressure measurement or the
so-termed pressure-derived flows
(Li, 1983) have continued to attract
considerable interest despite the advent of the electromagnetic blood
flow and ultrasonic blood velocity measuring devices.
the left ventricle and the arterial circulation
based on the idea
the windkessel. The ventricle ejects into a compliant chamber
representing the aorta, blood flow is stored in systole (solid line) and on elastic recoil in
diastole (dotted line), the stiff peripheral vessels are perfused.
In the analysis of the windkessel model, the amount of blood flow,
stored during each contraction is the difference between inflow,
the large arteries
the small peripheral vessel